Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Jane Austen’s religion’ Category

Inquiring readers, Brenda Cox has contributed yet another fascinating post. This one is about Jane Austen’s cross-stitched sampler. Is it hers or not? Find out as Ms. Cox explores the possibilities using an extensive amount of research and conversations with Jane Austen expert Deirdre Le Faye. Find her blog Faith, Science, Joy, … and Jane Austen at this link.

Picture 1 Austen Sampler

Did Jane Austen stitch this sampler? (Photos are of a reproduction. The white marks below the word “out” are damage to the print, not the sampler.)

Someone named Jane Austen stitched this lovely, well-worn sampler in 1797 or 1787. It is cross-stitched on linen, mostly in plum and green silk, with quotes from the Psalms. The text says 1797, but may have originally said 1787. Stitches below the 9 seem to have been picked out or frayed.  If it was done in 1787, Jane Austen would have been almost twelve years old. It appears the stitching could have been done by a girl around that age.

I have a reproduction of the sampler which I bought at the Jane Austen Centre in Bath some years ago. They no longer offer it. The original is in a private collection, though it was displayed at Oxford’s Bodleian Library in 2012. But was the sampler stitched by the novelist Jane Austen?

Samplers

In Northanger Abbey, Henry Tilney tells Catherine Morland he was at Oxford while she was “a good little girl working [her] sampler at home.” (“Not very good, I’m afraid,” Catherine responds.)  Girls often stitched samplers as a way of learning sewing and the alphabet.

The Jane Austen’s House Museum in Chawton displays a sampler worked by Jane’s sister Cassandra, or possibly by their niece of the same name. Many samplers of the time were much like Cassandra’s. They display different stitches, alphabets, and numbers. The young lady could refer to her sampler later when she did more complex projects or stitched initials on items of clothing.

Picture 2 Cassandra's Sampler

Cassandra Austen’s Sampler. Courtesy of Jane Austen’s House Museum, Chawton

Picture 3 Jane Austen sampler - alphabet

Alphabet at the top of the Jane Austen Sampler. Letters in between each pair are in a lighter, faded color. The P’s are backwards here, but correct in the verses below.

The two samplers are about the same size. Both are about 10” wide and 11 to 12” high. The capital letters on the Jane Austen sampler are very similar to the smaller cross-stitched capital letters on Cassandra’s sampler. (Cassandra’s larger capitals are sewn with a different stitch.) These were probably standard styles of stitching.

Much of the Jane Austen sampler is different from Cassandra’s, though, since it quotes from the Psalms. This helped the stitcher learn Bible verses along with the alphabet.

Why the Psalms? Austen’s Church of England used The Book of Common Prayerfor worship. It includes daily readings from the Psalms, taken from the 1535 Coverdale translation of the Bible. The whole book of Psalms is read every month, so it was very familiar to Austen and her family. The sampler quotes various verses, in no particular order. Each line starts with a capital letter, but most verses do not start a new line.

The Verses from the Psalms

Picture 4 Jane Austen sampler - Psalms

The verses from the Psalms are in a continuous stream.

The following verses are quoted. Some are not exact quotes from the Psalms in the prayer book.

Praise the Lord o my Soul and all that is within me Praise his holy Name (Ps. 103:1)

as long as I live will I praise The Lord I will give thanks unto God while I have My Being (paraphrased fromPs. 104:33, “I will sing unto the Lord as long as I live : I will praise my God while I have my being.”)

sing unto the Lord o ye Kingdoms of the Earth o sing praise unto the Lord (paraphrased from Ps. 68:32 “Sing unto God, O ye kingdoms of the earth : O sing praises unto the Lord”)

Give the Lord the Honour doe [?] unto his Name worship the Lord with holy Worship (Psalm 29:2, with “doe” substituted for “due”)

in the Time of trouble I will call upon the Lord and he will hear me (from Ps 86:7 “In the time of my trouble I will call upon thee : for thou hearest me.”)

Turn thy Face from my Sins and put out all my Misdeeds (Ps 51:9)

Picture 5 Jane Austen sampler - trees and name and more


A border of flowers (or possibly geometric shapes) surrounds the Psalms.  Below are flowering trees with a bird, and “Jane Austen, 1797.

Is this Jane Austen the novelist, or another Jane Austen?

Deirdre Le Faye, an expert on Jane Austen, believes that the stitcher was another Jane Austen, probably a second cousin of the author of Pride and Prejudice. These are her arguments, followed by my own, definitely non-expert, thoughts:

  1. The date is 1797, but appears to have originally been 1787. Sometimes a date on a sampler would be changed to make a woman appear to be younger than she was.  Le Faye asks, “Would the eminently honest and straightforward Austens have bothered with such a petty deception?”

I agree that this seems out of character for Jane Austen and her family. However, descriptions I have seen of the sampler say some of the stitching has “come away.” It may be that it was not purposely changed, but that the stitches came loose over time. The sampler has been folded and somewhat damaged. The “9” (or “8”) is at the center, possibly on a fold line. The “A” directly above the number is also not very clear.

Picture 6 Jane Austen sampler - name and date


Closeup of name and date

2. The verses seem to be chosen haphazardly and are all run together.  There is also a simple spelling error (“doe” for “due”), which Le Faye thinks our Jane Austen would not have made. Le Faye asks, “Would Jane—bright as we know she was in her childhood—have copied texts inaccurately from the psalms in her Prayerbook?”

Perhaps the young Jane Austen would not have made such a spelling error. However, there are misspellings and random capitalizations in her early Juvenilia. Also, the single stitch that makes the middle letter of “due” into an “o” is very tiny, like all the cross stitches on this small sampler. It is not very clear on my reproduction, and at first I thought it was a “u” but a bit blurred. It may be a stitching error rather than a spelling error.

The inaccuracy of the texts is a bigger issue, and it does seem odd that the verses are all run together. The changes within the verses are minor, as you can see above.  These verses would have been very familiar to the Austen family, who probably read from the Psalms daily. So we might have expected Jane to stitch them correctly. However, perhaps they were familiar enough that Jane was stitching them from memory. We know she was creative and imaginative. She may have been stitching verses as they came to mind, in ways that resonated with her. The meanings are expressed well.

On the other hand, even at a young age, it does seem more likely that “our” Jane Austen would have put the verses together in a more organized, accurate fashion. Deirdre Le Faye adds that, since Jane’s father was a rector, he probably would have corrected any mistakes that she made in quoting the Psalms. He might even have helped her choose verses to include.

 

3. The main issue is the provenance (the history of ownership) of the sampler. According to an earlier article that Le Faye refers to, in 1976 the sampler was “owned by a Mrs Molly Proctor, who was given it by Mrs I. Thompson of Rochester, whose grandfather, Mr Frederick Nicholls of Whitstable, was a grandson of a cousin of Jane Austen.” It was sold at auction in 1996 for 2,185 pounds.

This provenance was passed down orally and not in writing. There is no indication of who the cousin might be.  Austen had only a few first cousins: Eliza de Feuillide, Jane and Edward Cooper, James and Phylly Walter. Le Faye continues, “Only Edward Cooper and James Walter left descendants, all of whom lived in the Midlands” (central England).

Whitstable, mentioned in the provenance of the sampler, is quite some distance away, on the coast of northern Kent in southeastern England (north of Canterbury).  There is no record of any cousins of the Steventon Austen family living in that area. And the name “Frederick Nicholls” is not found among the Austen relations in R. A. Austen-Leigh’s Pedigree of Austen. So it seems unlikely that Nicholls was connected with the novelist Jane Austen in a different part of the country.

Le Faye therefore suggests that the sampler was probably done by a different woman named Jane Austen, of a similar age, in Kent. She gives two possibilities:

  • There was an Austen family in Ramsgate and Loose, near Maidstone in Kent. They were related to the Austens of Steventon through a sixteenth-century ancestor. It’s possible they had their own “Jane Austen.”
  • Jane Austen did have a second cousin named Jane Austen who lived in Kent. They had the same great-grandfather, John Austen IV of Broadford, who died in 1704. His son Francis Austen had a son named Francis-Motley Austen (1747-1815) who lived at Kippington near Sevenoaks in Kent. Francis-Motley had a daughter named Jane Austen. She lived from 1776 (the year after the novelist Jane was born) until 1857. This Jane Austen married William-John Campion in 1797 and had children. It’s possible that she stitched the sampler and left it to relatives who passed it down through the family.

The two Jane Austens probably met in 1788, when the George Austen family visited Jane’s great-uncle Francis Austen and his family at Sevenoaks. Our Jane was twelve, her second cousin Jane about a year younger.  We don’t know what they thought of each other.

At this point there is no definitive proof as to whether the sampler was sewn by “our” Jane Austen, by her second cousin in Kent, or by some other Jane Austen.

At the very least we can say that it was a sampler stitched at around the same time as our Jane Austen probably made her own, and most likely somewhere in southern England. It may have been in a similar style to whatever sampler she sewed. And she or one of her relatives may have stitched it. So we can enjoy it as another small window into Jane Austen’s world.

 (By the way, is there a genealogist out there who can track down a Mr Frederick Nicholls of Whitstable who was a grandson of a cousin of a Jane Austen? A Jane Austen who was a young girl in 1787 or 1797? Which Jane Austen was she?)

 

Brenda S. Cox writes on “Faith, Science, Joy . . . and Jane Austen!” She is working on a book entitled Fashionable Goodness: Christianity in Jane Austen’s England. Her previous contribution to this blog can be found at this link: George Austen’s Spiritual Advice to his Son Francis Austen. 

Sources

“Which Jane Austen Stitched this Sampler?” by Deirdre Le Faye.  Collected Reports of the Jane Austen Society, Vol. 5 (1996-2000), pp 233-35. Also personal correspondence with Deirdre Le Faye.

Jane Austen: Her Life and Letters, by William Austen-Leigh and Richard Arthur Austen-Leigh (1913), discusses the “Motley Austen” branch of the family in chapters 1 and 4.

Jane Austen: A Family Record by Deirdre Le Faye (Cambridge University Press, second edition, 2004) mentions the family of the other Jane Austen (the second cousin) on pages 2-3, 64, and 78.

More on the Topic

Read Full Post »

Blog Tour Kick-Off!

Inquiring readers,

It is my privilege to kick off the blog tour of Rachel Dodge’s book, Praying with Jane: 31 Days Through the Prayers of Jane Austen on Jane Austen’s World blog. (See calendar of the tour below.) Jane wrote masterfully insightful, funny, witty, as well as unflattering and acerbic observations of family members, acquaintances, and village characters in her private letters and novels, but, as Ms. Dodge describes in her book, she was also a religious, wise, talented, and complex woman who was hard to pigeon hole. Rachel’s book discusses Jane’s faith and rich inner life. Below, find my discussion with Ms. Dodge, who gave much thought to answering my questions.

Dodge_RachelQ: How did writing and researching Praying with Jane change your insights about Jane as a person and a writer?

 I definitely feel like I understand Jane better as a result of writing and researching Praying with Jane. I spent days, weeks, and months pouring over her letters and novels; examining and researching her prayers; and reading through the Austen family papers and memoirs. Each day when I put my research materials away, I was tired but happy because I felt as if I had spent the day with Jane! Her words were in my mind constantly. I listened to the cadence of her prayers, reflecting on her words and the meaning behind them. I studied her life and her faith, learning from her family’s home life and spiritual traditions. I even incorporated some of her habits into my own life, such as writing down my own prayers each morning in my journal.

PrayingwithJanecoverI put Praying with Jane together in a subtle, chronological order, which gave me the sense that I was watching her life unfold as I wrote. I saw her through her father’s eyes in his letter when she was born. I pictured walking up the lane to church, kneeling for prayers, reciting prayers from the Book of Common Prayer, and gathering with the family to read in the evening. I saw the changes that occurred in her life, from the Steventon years of a full house brimming with children to the Chawton years when it was just the ladies at home. I viewed her from the perspective of her nieces and nephews in their letters and memoirs, , with whom she was “the general favourite . . . her ways with them being so playful, and her long circumstantial stories so delightful” (Austen-Leigh). I read Cassandra’s letters about Jane’s final days here on Earth as though I was sitting beside her bed. I included an epilogue in the book called “A Lasting Legacy” because I wanted to honor the profound impact her life and writing has had on me and countless others.

 

 

 

 

Q: How did your research change your personal feelings towards Jane?

In my academic work, I’ve always referred to Jane Austen by her last name, but after working on the manuscript for this book for several months, she soon became Jane to me. She was no longer a famous author; she was a person. Referring to her as “Jane” in the book, and even selecting the title Praying with Jane is evidence of the bond I felt with her after such an intense study of her life, faith, and prayers. I feel a certain kinship with her now as a result of my studies.

I also understand her desire to live life well, to consider how she spent each day, and to think about how her actions or words might affect others. In one of her prayers, she says this: “Incline us, O God, to think humbly of ourselves, to be severe only in the examination of our own conduct, to consider our fellow-creatures with kindness, and to judge of all they say and do with that charity which we would desire from them ourselves.” Her words are personal and relatable. I think we’ve all had moments when we thought too highly of ourselves or judged others too quickly or harshly.

In the book’s introduction, I say this: “Reading Jane’s prayers is a bit like looking into her heart. In them, we get to know another side of Jane’s personality—a more serious and reverent side. They reveal a genuine, practical faith in Jesus Christ. Every line displays a balance of robust belief and tender intimacy. And like her novels, Jane’s prayers contain meaning that reaches far beyond eloquent words or graceful phrases. They are personal and reflective, passionate and thorough.” Exploring Jane’s prayers is a wonderful way to get to know her better.

Q: Did writing this book give you a desire to reread her books from a new perspective?

Absolutely! Jane’s novels took on new meaning for me as I read, studied, and wrote about her prayers and her spiritual life. Rereading her novels over the past two years with the lines of her prayers in the back of my mind has given me a brand new perspective on her writing. Though her novels are not overtly religious or “preachy,” they each contain moral lessons, religious themes, and biblical undertones.

Jane appears to have taken her faith quite seriously. We can see from the reverent language and tone of her prayers that she meant what she wrote. For example, her first prayer has this opening line: “Give us grace, Almighty Father, so to pray, as to deserve to be heard, to address thee with our Hearts, as with our lips.” This tells us she wanted to pray from the heart. She wasn’t the type to say or do one thing on Sunday and then live differently the rest of the week. Her faith was part of who she was. It makes sense, then, that her writing, which also flowed from her heart, might include spiritual themes. Anytime I can read Jane’s novels in a new light, I find it fascinating!

Q: What’s one question you wish you could ask Jane in person if you could go back in time?

If I could go back in time, I would ask Jane why she loved to write. I’m so curious to know what writing felt like to her. She obviously enjoyed it. She had a lot of fun with her characters and plots. Lines came to her as she was sitting quietly with her needlework. I’d like to take a long walk with her and ask all about her writing process. I want to know the story behind each of her novels and how she came up with her delightful characters.

Q: What did you learn about Jane’s inner life? What drove her?

Most of us who love Jane Austen want to know what made her tick. Getting to know Jane’s spiritual side did that for me. I like knowing that she prayed each morning and evening on her own, prayed with her family each day, read devotional literature and sermons, and attended church on Sunday. I appreciate the way she lived out her faith in her daily life as a daughter, sister, aunt, and friend. I think love for her family drove her. She wasn’t the type to lock herself away, not to be disturbed, because she was busy writing. She wrote letters, played with her nieces and nephews, spent time with her family and neighbors, played the piano, traveled, read novels, cared for others, and enjoyed a lifelong friendship with Cassandra. Jane is a wonderful example of a well-rounded woman of faith for me.

I also admire that Jane Austen’s faith held fast during even the most difficult moments in her life. It was a firm foundation for her when she was ill. Her deep belief in a loving, gracious Father and the promise of an eternity spent in Heaven provided comfort in her final days on earth. She was taught to love and know God at an early age and she did “not depart from it” in her adult life (Proverbs 22:6). The storms of life seem to only have drawn her closer to God. She believed in the Bible and lived by it. She had a well spring of joy in her life that came from deep within and did not depend on her circumstances. Perhaps she was merely a naturally happy person, but I believe her faith, which the Bible calls a river of “living water,” was a source of inner joy and contentment for her (John 7:38).

Q: Do you think her faith played any part in her decision to remain single and pursue the non-ladylike ambition of a writing career?

If Jane’s faith did play any part in her decision to remain single, I’d say it’s only because her faith undergirded much of what she did in her life. I think she was quite content with her life, her family, and her writing. Jane understood what it meant to be loved—as a daughter, sister, and friend. I think she could have enjoyed great happiness in marriage to the right man, but I believe “only the deepest love” could have induced her to marry, much like her character Elizabeth Bennet.

Thank you, Vic, for hosting my book and for kicking off this blog tour. Thank you readers of Jane Austen’s World for your time and interest. It is my hope and prayer that Praying with Jane will help you know Jane better . . . and the God she loved.

About Praying with Jane: 31 Days Through the Prayers of Jane Austen: For more than two hundred years, Jane Austen and her novels have charmed readers from around the world. While much has been written about her fascinating life, less is known about Jane’s spiritual side. In this 31-day devotional, Austen’s faith comes to life through her exquisite prayers, touching biographical anecdotes, and illuminating scenes from her novels. Each reading also includes a thematically appropriate Scripture and a prayer inspired by Jane’s petitions.

PURCHASE PRAYING WITH JANE HERE

About the author: Rachel Dodge teaches college English and Jane Austen classes, gives talks at libraries, teas, and Jane Austen groups, and is a writer for the popular Jane Austen’s World blog. She is passionate about prayer and the study of God’s Word. A true “Janeite” at heart, Rachel enjoys books, bonnets, and ball gowns. She makes her home in Northern California with her husband and two children. You can find her online at RachelDodge.com.

Rachel’s website, Facebook or Twitter pages:

Online Reading Group: Starting November 1, Rachel is hosting a “31 Days of Praying with Jane” Facebook group. Here’s the link if you’d like to join her online reading group for the month of November: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1037743546402251/

Works Cited:

Austen-Leigh, James Edward. Memoir of Jane Austen, 1870.

Blog Tour Dates:

October 31 – Praying with Jane, My changed Relationship with Jane, Jane Austen’s World, Vic Sanborn

November 1 – Praying With Jane by Rachel Dodge,  So Little Time, So Much to Read!, Candy Morton

November 2 – Praying With Jane: 31 Days Through Prayer (Review and Giveaway)Laura’s Reviews, Laura Gerold

November 3 – Praying With Jane: 31 Days Through Prayer by Rachel Dodge, Burton Book Review, Marie Burton

November 4 – Blog Tour: Praying With Jane: 31 Days Through Prayer by Rachel DodgeBLOGLOVIN‘, Sophia Rose

November 5 – Guest Post: Praying With Jane by Rachel Dodge and Book Giveaway! Jane Austen in Vermont, Deborah Barnum

November 6 – Book Spotlight and Giveaway: Praying with Jane by Rachel DodgeCalico Critic, Laura Hartness

November 7 – Praying with Jane: 31 Days Through Prayer by Rachel Dodge,  A Bookish Way of Life, Nadia Anguiano

November 8 – Book Spotlight: Praying with Jane: 31 Days Through the Prayers of Jane Austen by Rachel Dodge, Diary of an EccentricAnna Horner

November 9 – Review of Praying with JaneBecoming, Nichole Parks

November 10 – Praying with Jane: A new devotional based on the prayers of Jane AustenMy Jane Austen Book Club, Maria Grazia

November 11 – Praying with Jane Blog Tour: Interview and GiveawaysMy Love for Jane Austen, Sylvia Chan

November 12 – Laughing with Lizzie, Sophie Andrews

November 13 – Book Review: Praying with JaneFaith, Science, Joy … and Jane AustenBrenda Cox

Previous reviews:

Praying with Jane Blog Tour: https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2018/10/20/praying-with-jane-blog-tour/

Praying with Jane, Michelle Ule: https://www.michelleule.com/2018/09/28/jane-austen/

Jane Austen in Vermont: https://janeausteninvermont.blog/2018/10/05/guest-post-praying-with-jane-by-rachel-dodge/

Read Full Post »

Inquiring readers,

Praying with Jane: 31 Days through the Prayers of Jane Austen, Rachel Dodge, and a bookmark with the quote

Praying With Jane: 31 Days Through the Prayers of Jane Austen, Rachel Dodge, Bethany House, 2018

A “Praying With Jane” blog tour will begin October 31st on this blog. I am privileged to showcase Rachel Dodge’s deeply felt first book, which centers around three prayers Jane Austen wrote that have miraculously survived, given the destruction of so much of her original papers.

A whole family assembling regularly for the purpose of prayer is fine!” – Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Many readers of this blog have come to know Rachel in the past year and a half through her blog post contributions, her exquisite writing style, and her extensive knowledge of Jane Austen’s life. This book is a labor of love for Rachel. Divided into 31 days, readers are guided for one month to a daily examination of sections of the three prayers until, at the end of the book, they have thoroughly studied Jane’s prayers.

My sister-in-law, Carol, who read Pride and Prejudice years ago and knows little of Jane Austen’s novels and characters, other than the movies she’s seen, has read the book for me.

I was skeptical about the book at first, because I know so little about Jane Austen, but I found Rachel’s choice of scriptures to be inspiring,”

Rachel includes two scriptures per day. An example of one is included in the samples of the first day of prayer below:

I have loved you with an everlasting love; I have drawn youth unfailing kindness.” – Jeremiah 31:3 NIV

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

As mentioned, the blog tour begins here October 31st! Other blogs on the tour (in random order) are:

Diary of an Eccentric | So Little Time…| Laura’s Reviews | Calico Critic | Jane Austen in Vermont| My Love for Jane Austen | A Bookish Way of Life | Burton Reviews | My Jane Austen Book Club | Delighted Reader Book Reviews | Laughing With Lizzie | Becoming |(and, of course,) Jane Austen’s World

Please join us as we examine this lovely addition to the canon of works by Jane Austen’s ardent admirers!

Information about Praying With Jane is available at

Rachel  Dodge’s posts on this blog

Follow Rachel Dodge at www.racheldodge.com

 

Read Full Post »

%d bloggers like this: